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See below for standard definitions of commonly used sustainability terms or click to jump to the section

A-D, E-I, J-M, N-R, S-V, W-Z.

Thanks to Hope Solutions for generously providing this glossary for public use. Our wish is that it be treated as a wiki-resource, and so please provide your feedback on missing terms, or clarifications.

1.5oC pathwayA pathway of greenhouse gas emissions that provides an approximately ½ or ⅓ chance, under current knowledge and modeling of the climate response, of global warming, either remaining below or returning to 1.5oC by around the year 2100 following a temperature overshoot.
B CorpA B Corporation is a private certificate (run by B Lab) of for-profit companies to ensure they meet the ‘highest standards’ for their social, environmental and governance performance, public transparency and legal accountability to balance profit and purpose. This is a voluntary certification which externally assesses a company’s impact on all its stakeholders including workers, government, customers, environment and community through the B Impact Assessment (BIA). B Corps are committed to using business as a force for good, at present, the BIA is marked out of 200 and companies that score over 80/200 can become a B Corp.
BiodegradableAn item or material that can be decomposed by bacteria or other living microorganisms, including fungi, to produce organic matterDecayed organic material can then be used as a fertiliser to enhance soil health and growth of plants
BiomimicryThe design and production of materials, structures, and systems that are modelled on biological entities and natural processes.
BioplasticsA plastic derived from biological substances/renewable biomass sources such as vegetable fats and oils, corn starch, straw, woodchips or recycled food waste, rather than from petroleum. NB: this does not mean the products are biodegradable.
BPAA chemical compound used in the manufacturing of various plastics BPA containing materials include coatings inside food cans/containers/water bottles, clothing, receipts, etc.The health effects of BPA have been debated scientifically but it has been found that BPA can mimic the effects of the hormone estrogen in the body, BPA can also be found in breastmilkBPA-free plastics have been introduced due to this
BREEAMBuilding Research Establishment Environmental Assessment Method published by the Building Research Establishment (BRE)Method of assessing, rating and certifying the sustainability of commercial buildings (like offices, blocks of flats, etc)BREEAM is mainly designed for new developments, but there is now BREEAM refurbishment and In-use standards for existing buildingsBREEAM certification covers ratings in the following categories:ManagementEnergyHealth and wellbeingTransportWasteWaterMaterialsLand use and ecology Pollution From the design stages through to when the building is occupied Based on the ratings in these categories buildings can achieve BREEAM certifications of Pass – Good – Very Good – Excellent – Outstanding
Carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e)The amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) emission that would cause the same radiative forcing or temperature change, over a 100 year period, as an emitted amount of a GHG or mixture of GHGs. Different activities emit different GHGs, all of which should be reported according to the Kyoto Protocol. The Global Warming Potential metrics (GWPs) used in the calculation of carbon dioxide equivalents are based on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) over a 100-year period so that the conversion factors are consistent with current national and international reporting requirements.  This is a common scale of comparing emissions of different GHGs.
Carbon FootprintA measure of the amount of CO2e released into the atmosphere as a result of the activities of a particular individual, organisation or community over a defined timeframe.
CDPCarbon Disclosure Project An international not-for profit organisation that helps companies and organisations disclosure their environmental impactRuns global disclosure systems for investors, companies, cities, states and regions to manage their environmental impactsReferred to as the ‘gold standard’ within the world’s economy of environmental reporting Helps companies to measure and manage their risks and opportunities on climate change, water security and deforestation
Carbon neutralCarbon neutrality means having a balance between emitting carbon and absorbing it from the atmosphere in carbon sinks or removing it from the atmosphere and storing it (carbon sequestration). Carbon neutrality is achieved when anthropogenic (meaning resulting from human activities) greenhouse gas emissions are balanced, so when the small amount of remaining emissions are absorbed through anthropogenic removals. An organisation can achieve carbon neutrality by offsetting their emissions. The term ‘carbon neutral’ does not mean a company has mitigated or reduced carbon emissions.
Carbon negative / Climate positiveCarbon negative means emitting less than zero CO2e greenhouse gases, this can occur when CO2e removal outweighs the GHG emissions and goes beyond being carbon neutral. Climate positive – Means carbon negative, the project actually removes carbon emissions rather than adding to them.
Carbon sequestrationProcess of drawing carbon out of the atmosphere and storing it in a carbon pool or sink (a reservoir where GHGs are stored, e.g. in soils, plants, trees, oceans)This occurs naturally in the earth’s carbon cycleCarbon sequestration can be enhanced and encouraged by humans through planting trees, carbon capture and storage (separating carbon from industrial and energy-related sources and transporting it for long term storage from the atmosphere, e.g. underground)
Circular economy / circularitySystem aimed at eliminating waste and the continual reuse and repurposing of resources.

CompostableA compostable item means that the item is made from an organic material that can decay/decompose through the action of bacteria and fungiDecayed organic material can then be used as a fertiliser to enhance soil health and growth of plants
Conversion FactorsA multiplier for converting a quantity expressed in one set of units into an equivalent expressed in another. In terms of greenhouse gas reporting this refers to an emission factor conversion from activity data, e.g. kgs of fuel, kWhs electricity etc, into associated GHG emissions, e.g. kgCO2e per kWh of electricity
DecarbonisationTypically, this refers to a reduction of the carbon emissions of GHGs associated with an activity, industry or transport with the aim to achieve zero fossil carbon existenceE.g. the decarbonisation of electricity grids has reduced the emissions per unit of electricity generated from 0.48531 kgCO2e per kWh in 2010 to 0.19338 kgCO2e per kWh in 2022. This is through reducing the proportion of electricity generated by fossil fuels and increasing renewable electricity generation.
EmissionsWhen we use the term emissions we refer to the GHGs released into the atmosphere that are produced by anthropogenic (human-related) activities, such as burning fossil fuels.
Embodied carbonAlso known as embedded carbon and includes all the GHGs emitted in producing materials. It is commonly used to specifically refer to carbon or GHG emissions associated with materials and construction processes throughout the entire lifecycle of a construction material, building or infrastructure. This includes any GHGs created during the manufacturing, transport and construction practices of materials.
ESGEnvironmental, Social and Governance (ESG)ESG reporting measures a business impacts on the society, the environment and how transparent and accountable it’s governance is (covering leadership, pay, audits, shareholder rights, etc)The environmental aspect covers carbon emissions, energy use and efficiency, understanding of value chain emissionsSocial covers wider societal impacts and workplace culture, including investments in the community, fair and equal opportunities, people working in the supply chain/labour rights, creating a fair and diverse workplace, etc.Governance refers to the processes of decision making, reporting and running of the company/organisation.There’s currently no standardised approach to the measurement and reporting on ESG metricsInvestors are increasingly looking at ESG metrics as part of their analysis process to identify risks and growth opportunities for their investmentsFor Carabao’s UK operations, many buyers may also be looking at ESG factors when deciding whether the product is suited to their own ambitions and targetsNot part of mandatory financial reporting
EVElectric vehicle, i.e. those powered by an electric motor, of which there are generally 2 types: Battery electric – fully electric battery-powered motor which requires charging and no input of solid fuelsPlug-in hybrid electric (PHEVs) – a hybrid system that uses batteries to power an electric motor and another fuel, such as petrol or diesel, to power an internal combustion engine
GHG ProtocolThe GHG Protocol set internationally recognised standards to measure and manage emissions globally by providing globally standardised frameworks to report on emissions. The GHG Protocol resources are created by the World Resource Institute (WRI) and the World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD). The resources include the following standards which have been followed to calculate Carabao’s UK footprint:GHG Protocol Corporate Accounting and Reporting Standard (known as the ‘Corporate Standard’) provides guidance and requirements for companies and organisations to create GHG emissions inventoriesThe Corporate Value Chain (Scope 3) Standard sets guidance for companies and organisations to assess their entire value chain emissions and identify where to focus reduction activities
Greenhouse gases (GHGs)Earths GHGs trap heat in the atmosphere to warm the planet (global warming / climate change) and enhance the greenhouse effect, pushing the natural greenhouse effect out of balanceThe Climate Change Act in 2008 names 6 major GHGsCarbon dioxide Methane Nitrous oxide Plus the 3 fluorinated gases (PFCs, HFCs, SF6)   Measured in parts per million/billion/trillion and compared in terms of carbon dioxide equivalents (CO2e)Stays in the atmosphere for up to 1000s years mixing evenly (not just at source)Absorbs and emit radiation that cause the greenhouse effect and climate change
Greenhouse effectAs per the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report: Climate Change 2007: The Sun powers Earth’s climate, radiating energy at very short wavelengths, predominately in the visible or near-visible (e.g., ultraviolet) part of the spectrum. Roughly one-third of the solar energy that reaches the top of Earth’s atmosphere is reflected directly back to space. The remaining two-thirds is absorbed by the surface and, to a lesser extent, by the atmosphere. To balance the absorbed incoming energy, the Earth must, on average, radiate the same amount of energy back to space. Because the Earth is much colder than the Sun, it radiates at much longer wavelengths, primarily in the infrared part of the spectrum (see Figure 1). Much of this thermal radiation emitted by the land and ocean is absorbed by the atmosphere, including clouds, and reradiated back to Earth. This is called the greenhouse effect. The glass walls in a greenhouse reduce airflow and increase the temperature of the air inside. Analogously, but through a different physical process, the Earth’s greenhouse effect warms the surface of the planet. Without the natural greenhouse effect, the average temperature at Earth’s surface would be below the freezing point of water. Thus, Earth’s natural greenhouse effect makes life as we know it possible. However, human activities, primarily the burning of fossil fuels and clearing of forests, have greatly intensified the natural greenhouse effect, causing global warming.

GWPGlobal warming potential: The heat absorbed by any GHG in the atmosphere as a multiple of the heat that would be absorbed by the same mass of carbon dioxide:Therefore, the GWP of CO2 is 1In the IPCC Sixth Assessment Report Global Warming Potentials are shown over a time horizon of 100 years (GWP100) Fifth assessment report figures show GWPs as:CH4 = x28N2O = x265Allows comparisons of the global warming impacts of different greenhouse gasesAllows for the calculation of carbon dioxide equivalents by converting the amounts of other GHGs released, including N2O and CH4, into the equivalent amount of CO2 with the same GWP.
Scope 1 (emissions)Scope 1 emissions are direct GHG emissions from sources that are owned and controlled by WMG, such as natural gas combusted in boilers and diesel/petrol combusted in vehicles.
Scope 2 (emissions)Scope 2 emissions are indirect GHG emissions from the generation of purchased electricity, steam, heat or cooling consumed by WMG. These emissions physically occur at the facility where they are generated but are associated with WMG’s energy use from their buildings.
Scope 3 (emissions)Scope 3 emissions invoice all other indirect emissions not included in Scope 2, these can occur in the value chain including upstream and downstream emissions. For example, business travel where WMG is not responsible for purchasing the fuel, emissions associated with purchased goods and services, and emissions from the disposal of waste generated in operations.

WRI Corporate Value Chain (Scope 3) Accounting and Reporting Standard, page 5.  
Downstream (emissions)Indirect GHG emissions related to goods and services sold by an organisationOccur subsequent to their sale by the reporting company and transfer of control from the reporting company to another entity (e.g. customer)Includes distribution and storage, use of products, end of life treatment/disposal of products
Upstream (emissions)Indirect GHG emissions related to the purchased or acquired goods and services used by an organisationOccur up to the point of receipt by the reporting companyIncludes material acquisition, pre-processing (e.g. of ingredients)
Hydrogen powerRefers to hydrogen being burned as a fuel with oxygen, producing energy and only water as a byproduct. Hydrogen power can be produced from a variety of different resources to ‘burn’ the fuel, these are displayed below: Grey hydrogen (currently the most common form) is generated from natural gas or methane through a process called steam reforming.Black or brown hydrogen is the most environmentally damaging form due to the GHG emissions released. Both use coal as the source of energy used to burn hydrogen to create energy, with black (bituminous) or brown (lignite) coal being used in the process.Blue hydrogen – produced from non-renewable energy sources such as natural gas or coal where the process is supported by carbon capture and storage to reduce the GHGs generated during the process.Green hydrogen – produced using renewable electricity to power an electrolyser that splits the hydrogen from water molecules, producing pure hydrogen and no harmful byproducts. This can also be used to store excess electricity to help meet future energy needs. This is the only form of carbon-neutral hydrogen. Also referred to as ‘clean hydrogen’.
HVO (fuel)Hydrotreated Vegetable Oil, a renewable fuel (biofuel) made from waste products.
IEMAThe Institute of Environmental Management and Assessment (IEMA) is the leading professional body for environmental practitioners and people working in sustainability in the UK and worldwideSimilar to how RICS (Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors) is the professional body for land, property, architecture & construction
IIRSMInternational Institute of Risk & Safety ManagementA professional membership organisation for those responsible for managing risks Setting standards, connecting people and organisations and providing practical education, training, advice and resources
Insetting(of GHG emissions) Where a company invests in carbon removal projects or climate protection projects within its own value chain, therefore achieving a positive impact on the communities, landscapes and ecosystems associated specifically with the value chainE.g. developing projects that enhance carbon sinks or reduce emissions – Burberry invests in methods to improve carbon capture on farms run by their wool producers in Australia
IOSHInstitution of Occupational Safety and Health (IOSH)The Chartered professional body for health and safety professionalsLargest membership body for health and safety professionalsAdvise governments, NGOs and policy makersFacilitate training and commission research to set national and international standards within the sector
IPCCInternational Panel on Climate Change: The United Nations body for assessing the science related to climate change. Its job is to provide and advance scientific knowledge about anthropogenic climate change and to advice government and policy relating to climate change.
ISO StandardsISO is an abbreviation for the International Organisation for Standardisation, an organisation/independent body composed of representatives from the national standards organisation of member countries and experts in a range of fields. ISO developed a set of international standards. ISO standards ensure the quality, safety and efficiency of products, services and systemsAn ISO standard is an internationally recognised way of doing something, enabling organisations to follow the same set of guidelines to increase consistencyDifferent ISO Standards include:There are >24,000 in totalSome are very specific and some are much broaderISO 9001 is the standard for a quality management systemISO 27001: a system for managing information securityISO 45001: the occupational health and safety management standardMany are related specifically to environmental aspects such as:ISO 14001 specifies the requirements for an environmental management system ISO 50001: Energy management standardISO 20400: Sustainable procurement
LCALife Cycle Assessment – a methodology for assessing environmental impacts associated with all the stages of the life-cycle of a commercial product, process, or service
Nature-based solutionsThe sustainable management and use of nature for tackling socio-environmental challenges.
Net zero emissionsNet zero emissions means to reduce GHG emissions in line with limiting global warming to 1.5oC and to balance any remaining emissions by enhancing carbon sinksThe main focus is to reduce emissions as close to zero as possible (Science-based target initiative: 90-95% reduction to remain inline with a 1.5oC pathway)Legally binding target within the UK to achieve net zero by 2050
OffsettingThe action or process of compensating for carbon dioxide emissions arising from industrial or other human activity, by participating in schemes designed to make equivalent reductions of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. A carbon offset is a reduction or removal of emissions of carbon dioxide or other GHGs in order to compensate for emissions made elsewhere. This is indirect sequestration made by purchasing carbon offsets. This can include investment in tree plantations, renewable energy, energy efficiency, etc. Carbon offsets do not count as a reduction in your carbon footprint, they are instead reported separately.
RSARoyal Society of ArtsThe Royal Society for the Encouragement of Arts, Manufactures and Commerce, also known as the Royal Society of Arts, is a London-based organisation committed to finding practical solutions to social challenges.
Planet MarkSustainability certification for organisations and businesses to recognise continuous improvement and encourage sustainable actionsStrengthens ESG strategies, contributes to the UN Sustainable Development Goals and sets credible net zero carbon targets that align with the SBRis net zero corporate standardProvides a platform to measure carbon emissions each year
Power / energy management hierarchyA hierarchy intended to provide a decision process for reducing power/energy consumption by prioritising prevention, efficiency and reductions before relying on low carbon alternatives.

PPAPower Purchase Agreement (electricity) Long term energy contracts between the electricity supplier/generator and the electricity consumer defining the commercial termsRenewable PPAs can be used to show that renewable energy is being provided to the consumer
RECsRenewable energy certificates (electricity) A type of energy attribute certificate that illustrates that the power mix for 1 megawatt hour of energy is produced by renewable sources only.
Regenerative agricultureDescribes sustainable farming and grazing practices that benefits the land and aims to enhance biodiversityThis is done through regenerating topsoil, enhancing the soil health, water and nutrient cycles (improving soil health)Covers a range of sustainable agriculture techniques and land management practices that includes recycling as much waste and composted material as possible; cover crops/crop rotations; no-till/minimum tillage (ploughing) of soil; multi species grazing/farming; etc.Has many benefits such as carbon sequestration, increasing resilience to climate change, reduced input requirements and enhanced crop yields in the long term
REGORenewable Energy Guarantees of Origin (electricity) Ofgem administered scheme, required of EU member states, providing transparency to UK consumers about the proportion of electricity that suppliers source from renewable generationUK Government continuing to issue REGOs to allow suppliers in the UK to comply with their fuel mix disclosure obligationsOfgem issue 1 REGO certificate per 1 megawatt hour of eligible renewable output to generators of renewable electricity.The purpose of the certificate is to prove to the final consumer that a given share of energy was produced from renewable sources
SASSurfers Against SewageEnvironmental marine conservation charity, dedicated to the protection of the ocean, waves, beaches and wildlifeCreated in 1990s by a group of Cornish surfers, creating a group of ocean activists working to help people and the ocean thrive
SBTiThe Science-Based Targets Initiative is a partnership between CDP, the United Nations Global compact, World Resources Institute (WRI) and the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF)Set up to drive ambition climate action in the private sector by enabling organisatiosn to set science-based emissions reduction targets Aim to increase ambition in the fight against climate changeThe SBTi’s Corporate Net Zero Standard is the world’s first framework for corporate net zero target setting in line with climate science. It includes guidance, criteria and recommendations companies need to set science-based net zero targets consistent with limiting global temperature rise to 1.5oC (The Paris Agreement) and reducing emissions by over 90%.Defines and promotes best practices for emission reductions
SECRStreamlined Energy and Carbon Reporting (SECR)The Companies (Directors’ Report) and Limited Liability Partnerships (Energy and Carbon Report) Regulations 2018 outlined new obligations for UK businesses to implement the government’s policy on SECRThe additional disclosure requirements introduced requirements for large unquoted companies (over 250 employees, turnover >£36m+ or balance sheet of £18m+), LLPs and quoted companies to disclose their annual energy use, GHG emissions and related information.The requirements differ for quoted and unquoted/LLP companies, but generally include:Energy use (gas, electricity, transport, fuel) / global energy use if applicableAssociated GHG emissionsPrevious year’s figures Energy efficiency action taken MethodologyUpdates to SECR requirements are likely to make reporting a requirement for more companies and to include more mandatory reporting aspectsGuidance for reporting is based on the internationally recognised GHG Protocol Corporate Accounting and Reporting Standard
SAFSustainable Aviation Fuel An umbrella term (covering a broad category of fuel types) referring to aviation fuels derived from non-fossil sources, thus resulting in significantly less GHG emissions throughout the life cycle of the fuelCan be produced of a variety of sustainable resources/feedstocks including forestry, agricultural waste, used cooking oil, carbon captured from the air and green hydrogen
Schmacher Institute An independent think tank offering research, consultancy and learning programmes on environmental and social justice issues. “We believe that our planet faces complex social, economic and environmental crises that are hard to solve, however, we are optimistic that solutions can be found. We apply systems thinking to explore and test sustainable options, which acknowledge the complexity of our world. We see social justice as integral to sustainability and look for answers that are fair to all, within the limits the Earth can sustain.”
SiPASustainability in Production Alliance: A community of live production professionals who share the belief that our industry must embrace sustainability to ensure its futureCreating an industry that works towards the triple bottom line of People, Planet, and Profit. SiPA is formed of individuals from all sectors of our industry, at all levels of the supply chain and at all stages of the production life-cycle, including stage managers, technicians, engineers, designers, freelancers and organisations, manufacturers, product designers, professional bodies, hire, sales and events companies, venues, production managers, producers, architects and theatre consultants, students, educators, directors, choreographers, funders, venue managers and more. 
tCO2eUnit of metric tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent (see definition for CO2e)
T&D lossesTransmission and distribution losses: Electricity T&D losses are the difference between the electricity entering the national grid and the electricity leaving it. Losses occur in transmission and distribution due to energy dissipated in conductors between grid supply points. Some energy is also dissipated in the form of heat due to electrical resistance in the network.
Think tankA body of experts providing advice, guidance, research and ideas on a specific political, economic or societal problem. Most think tanks focus on producing research publications and policy work, but some also host conferences and seminars and work closely with government and advocacy leaders to help advance their research and causes. Most think tanks are funded through private donations, grants and in some cases, public funds.
Trias energeticaEnergy efficiency philosophy based on; 1. reducing energy demand, 2. using onsite renewable energy sources, 3. use of remote renewable energy sources (grid power).
TCFDTask Force on Climate Related Financial Disclosures created by the Financial Stability BoardPurpose is to improve and increase reporting of climate related financial informationThe disclosure include recommendations structured around governance, strategy, risk management and metrics and targets to create a framework to help investors and other understand how reporting organisations think about and assess climate related risks and opportunities
UNESDAUnion of European Soft Drinks Associations Brussel based trade association representing the soft drink industryMembers create still drinks, cordials, dilutables, carbonates, fruit drinks, energy drinks, iced teas/coffees, squashed and sports drinksUNESDA and it’s members are working towards a more sustainable, responsible and competitive European soft drinks industry
VPPVirtual Power Plant: Networks of small energy producing or storage devices, like solar panels and batteries that are pooled together to serve the electricity grid.
Waste hierarchyFramework and regulation focused on waste prevention, reduction, reuse, recycling, recovery, and disposal – in that order.

WTTWell-to-tank emissions: An upstream or indirect emission which relates to the GHG emissions released into the atmosphere from the extraction, production, transport and delivery of a fuel or energy vector (as opposed to just the emissions released during combustion)